Gilded Age and Progressive Era (1877-1919)

Edited by John D. Buenker and Joseph Buenker

Includes: Topic Finder, thematic essays, A-Z entries, illustrations, sidebars, documents, chronology, master bibliography


Best Reference, Library Journal

Outstanding Academic Title, Choice


“This reference tool provides an excellent overview of the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era and will allow high school students, undergraduates, and the general public to learn more about this exciting period of American history. It would make an excellent addition to high school media centers as well as to undergraduate and public libraries.” Library Journal

“Here is an encyclopedia that accomplishes the rare feat of being focused, comprehensive, articulate, and accessible. ... A master bibliography ... integrates all entry bibliographies into an impressive, and perhaps unparalleled, knowledge base. ... [U]seful for ready reference, this encyclopedia’s greatest benefit is derived through in-depth exploration. ... A thorough chronology and meticulous indexing complement this superior work. ... Essential for all academic libraries, and highly recommended for large public libraries.” Booklist

“[W]ith its pleasing, easy-to-read type, this encyclopedia is an indispensable reference source for all historical collections. Acquisitions librarians can be assured that readers of many different ages and educational levels will use it. Essential. Lower-level undergraduates and above; general readers.” Choice

“Designed to fit high school curriculums, this guide will serve public library and undergraduate college collections.” Gale Reference Reviews

Description: Extending from the 1870s to World War I, the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era mark a major turning point in American history. During this colorful and influential period, the United States was transformed from an isolated, rural, agricultural nation into an urban, industrial, multicultural world power. It was an era marked by bigness: Big Business, Big Labor, and big ideas. These forces changed people’s everyday lives as a technical revolution swept the country, giving birth to such inventions as the telephone, light bulb, automobile, airplane, radio, and motion pictures. It was an era punctuated by disasters such as the Chicago Fire, the Johnstown Flood, and the San Francisco Earthquake, as well as two presidential assassinations. The same era also gave us ragtime, vaudeville, Coney Island, and Major League Baseball.

Symbolized by larger-than-life figures—Teddy Roosevelt, John D. Rockefeller, Mark Twain, Emma Goldman, and W.E.B. Du Bois, to name just a few—the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era set the stage for the United States to become the world’s industrial powerhouse and gave birth to the modern era.

This illustrated encyclopedia provides definitive coverage of the social and cultural developments of the period, as well as its political and economic history. Edited by the distinguished historian John Buenker and librarian Joseph Buenker, the work features hundreds of detailed entries on issues, events, people, and ideas, and includes original documents, sidebar features, and in-depth essays on major themes and developments.


Introduction: The Gilded Age and Progressive Era: 1877–1919

Primary Documents


Abbott, Edith, and Grace Abbott

Adams, Brooks

Adams, Charles Francis

Adams, Henry

Adamson Eight-Hour Act (1916)

Addams, Jane

Adler, Felix

African Americans (overview)

Aldrich, Nelson Wilmarth

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey

Aldrich-Vreeland Currency Act (1908)

Alger, Horatio

Alien Land Law (1913)

Alliance Movement

Allison, William B.

Altgeld, John Peter

American Association for Labor Legislation

American Association of University Professors

American Association of University Women

American Civil Liberties Union

American Federation of Labor

American Forestry Association

American Free Trade League

American Indians (overview)

American Protective Association

American Red Cross

American Social Science Association

American Society for Municipal Improvements

American Society of Equity


Amusement Parks


Anderson, Sherwood

Angell, George T.

Animal Protection

Anthony, Susan B.

Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902


Anti-Imperialist League

Anti-Monopoly Parties

Anti-Saloon League


Antismoking Movement

Antitrust Legislation


Antivice Crusades

Armory Show (1913)

Armour, Philip D.

Arthur, Chester A.

Art and Architecture (overview)

Arts and Crafts Movement

Asian Americans

Atlanta Compromise (1895)

Atlantic Monthly, The

Australian Ballot



Azusa Street Revival (1906–1909)

Back to Africa Movement

Back to the Farm Movement

Bailey, Liberty Hyde

Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Company (1922)

Baker, Newton D.

Baker, Ray Stannard

Balch, Emily Greene

Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy

Barnum, Phineas T.

Baruch, Bernard Mannes



Baum, L. Frank

Beard, Charles Austin

Bell, Alexander Graham

Bellamy, Edward

Berger, Victor, and Meta Berger

Bergh, Henry

Beveridge, Albert Jeremiah

Bierce, Ambrose

Birth of a Nation (1915)

Black Elk

Black Sox Scandal

Blaine, James G.

Blanc, Marie-Therese (Theodore Bentzon)

Bland-Allison Act (1878)

Blatch, Harriot Stanton

Bliss, William D.P.

Bly, Nellie

Boas, Franz

Bok, Edward William

Bonnin, Gertrude

Borah, William E.

Boston Police Strike (1919)


Bourne, Randolph

Boxer Rebellion (1900)

Boy Scouts of America

Brady, “Diamond Jim”

Brandeis, Louis Dembitz

Breckenridge, Madeline McDowell

Breckenridge, Sophonisba

Brisbane, Arthur

Brooklyn Bridge

Brooks, Van Wyck

Brown, Olympia

Brownsville Affair (1906)

Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Company (1916)

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryce, James

Buffalo Soldiers

Bunting v. Oregon (1917)

Burbank, Luther

Bureau of Corporations, United States

Bureau of Municipal Research

Burleson, Albert Sidney

Burnham, Daniel Hudson

Burns, Lucy

Butler, Nicholas Murray

Cable, George Washington

Cahan, Abraham

Camp, Walter

Canadian Reciprocity

Cannon, Joseph G.

Carnegie, Andrew

Carver, George Washington

Cassatt, Mary

Cather, Willa

Catt, Carrie Chapman

Cattell, James McKeen

Chain Stores

Chandler, William E.

Chaplin, Charles

Charity Organization Societies

Chautauqua Movement

Chicago School of Sociology

Child Labor Legislation

Child Saving

Children and Youth (overview)

Children’s Bureau, United States

Childs, Richard S.

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)

Churchill, Winston


City Beautiful

City Manager

City Planning

Civil Rights Cases (1883)

Civil Service Reform

Clark, James Beauchamp “Champ”

Clark, John Bates

Clay, Laura

Cleveland, Grover

Coal Mining Safety Legislation

Cobb, Tyrus Raymond


Cody, William Frederick “Buffalo Bill”

Colby, Clara Bewick

Collective Bargaining

Colored Farmers’ Alliance

Columbian Exposition (1893)

Commission Form of Municipal Government

Commission on Country Life

Commission on Industrial Relations

Commission on Interracial Cooperation

Committee on Public Information

Commons, John R.

Compromise of 1877

Comstock, Anthony

Conkling, Roscoe

Conscientious Objectors


Constitutional Amendments

Contract Labor

Convict Lease System

Cooke, Jay

Cooley, Charles Horton

Cooling-Off Treaties

Cooper, Peter

Cooperative Movement

Corbett, James

Corliss Engine

Corporation Excise Tax Act (1909)

Corrupt Practices Laws

Cotton Futures Act (1914)

Council of National Defense

Country Life Movement

Cox, James Middleton

Coxey, Jacob S.

Crane, Caroline Bartlett

Crane, Stephen

Crazy Horse

Creel, George

Cripple Creek Strike

Crisis, The

Croker, Richard

Croly, Herbert

Cummins, Albert Baird

Dana, Charles Anderson

Daniels, Josephus

Darrow, Clarence S.


Davis, Richard Harding

Dawes, Henry Laurens

Dawes Severalty Act (1887)

De Forest, Lee

De Leon, Daniel

DeBernardi, Giovanni Battista

Debs, Eugene V.

Dell, Floyd

Department of Commerce and Labor

Department Stores

Depression of the1890s

Dewey, John

Dewey, Melvil

DeWitt, Benjamin Parke



Dixon, Thomas, Jr.

Dodd, William Edward

Dollar Diplomacy

Donnelly, Ignatius

Dorr, Rheta Childe

Douglass, Frederick

Dowie, John Alexander

Dreier, Mary Elizabeth

Dreiser, Theodore

Du Bois, W.E.B.

Duke, James Buchanan

Dunbar, Paul Laurence

Dunne, Edward F.

Dunne, Finley Peter

Durant, William C.

Eastman, Charles Alexander (Ohiyesa)

Eastman, Crystal

Eastman, George

Eastman, Max

Economy, The (overview)

Eddy, Mary Baker

Edison, Thomas Alva



Eight-Hour Workday

Einstein, Albert

Election of 1876

Election of 1880

Election of 1884

Election of 1888

Election of 1892

Election of 1896

Election of 1900

Election of 1904

Election of 1908

Election of 1912

Election of 1916

Election of 1920

Elections, At-Large

Elections, Nonpartisan

Elections, Primary

Eliot, Charles W.

Elkins Act (1903)

Ely, Richard T.

Espionage Act (1917)


Everybody’s Magazine

Fairbanks, Charles W.

Farmers’ Union

Federal Aid Road Act (1916)

Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America

Federal Farm Loan Act (1916)

Federal Reserve Act (1913)

Federal Trade Commission

Field, Marshall

Field, Stephen J.

Filene, Edward Albert

Fisher, Dorothy Canfield

Fisher, Irving

Flint v. Stone Tracy Company (1911)

Flower, B.O.

Folk, Joseph Wingate

Food Administration, United States


Ford, Henry

Ford, Henry Jones

Foreign and International Relations (overview)

Forest Service, United States

Fortune, T. Thomas


Frank, Leo Max

Freud, Sigmund

Freund, Ernst

Frick, Henry Clay

Frost, Robert

Fuel Administration


Gale, Zona

Galveston Hurricane (1900)

Garden City Movement

Garfield, James A.

Garfield, James R.

Garland, Hamlin

Garner, John Nance

Garvey, Marcus

Gary, Elbert H.

Gary Plan

Gaston, Lucy

General Federation of Women’s Clubs

General Slocum

Gentlemen’s Agreement (1908)

George, Henry


Gerry, Elbridge T., III

Ghost Dance

Gibbons, James

Gibbs, Josiah Willard

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins

Gilman, Daniel Coit

Girl Scouts of America

Gladden, Washington

Glass, Carter

Godkin, Edwin L.

Goldman, Emma

Goldmark, Josephine Clara

Gompers, Samuel

Gompers v. Buck’s Stove and Range Company (1911)

Good Roads Movement

Goodnow, Frank Johnson

Gospel of Wealth

Gould, Jay

Government (overview)

Grand Army of the Republic

Granger Laws

Grant, Madison

Great Strike of 1877

Greenback Party

Griffith, David Wark

Haley, Margaret A.

Hall, G. Stanley

Hall, Prescott Farnsworth

Hamilton, Alice

Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918)

Hancock, Winfield Scott

Handy, W.C.

Hanna, Marcus Alonzo

Hard, William

Harding, Warren G.

Harlan, John Marshall

Harmon, Judson

Harper, Ida Husted

Harper, William Rainey

Harper’s Weekly

Harriman, Edward Henry

Harriman, W. Averell

Harris, Joel Chandler

Harris, William Torrey

Harrison, Benjamin

Harrison, Carter Henry, I, and Carter Henry Harrison II

Harvey, George

Hawaiian Annexation (1898)

Hay, John

Hayes, Rutherford B.

Haymarket Affair (1886)

Haywood, William Dudley

Health Insurance Legislation

Hearst, William Randolph

Hendrick, Burton Jesse

Henri, Robert

Hepburn Act (1906)

Herron, George D.

Hickok, James Butler “Wild Bill”

Hill, James J.

Hillquit, Morris

Hine, Lewis

Hitchcock, Gilbert

Hoar, George Frisbie

Holden v. Hardy (1898)

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Sr.

Home Rule

Homer, Winslow

Homestead Strike


Hoover, Herbert

Houdini, Harry

House, Edward Mandell

Housing Reform

Howe, Frederic C.

Howells, William Dean

Hughes, Charles Evans

Hull, Cordell

Hunt, Richard Morris

Hunter, Robert

Huntington, Henry E.

Ickes, Harold L.

Immigrants’ Protective League

Immigration and Ethnicity (overview)

Immigration Commission, United States

Immigration Restriction

Immigration Restriction League


Income Tax, Federal

Indian Boarding Schools

Industrial Commission, United States

Industrial Democracy

Industrial Workers of the World

Influenza Pandemic of 1918

Ingersoll, Robert G.


Institutional Economics

Insull, Samuel

Insurance Companies, Regulation of

International Council of Women (1888)

International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union

Interstate Commerce Law

Interurban Railways

Ireland, John


Ives, Charles E.

Jackson, Helen Hunt

James, Henry

James, William

Jameson, John Franklin

Johnson, Hiram W.

Johnson, Jack

Johnson, Tom Loftin

Johnson, Walter

Johnstown Flood (1889)

Jolson, Al

Jones, Mother

Jones, Samuel M.

Joplin, Scott

Jordan, David Starr

Joseph, Chief

Junior Republics

Juvenile Courts

Kallen, Horace M.

Keating-Owen Act (1916)

Keller, Helen

Keller v. United States (1909)

Kelley, Florence

Kelley, Oliver H.

Kellogg, Paul Underwood

Kellor, Frances Alice

Kern-McGillicuddy Act (1916)

Knapp, Seaman Asahel

Knights of Labor

Knox, Philander C.

La Flesche, Francis

La Follette, Belle Case

La Follette, Robert, Sr.

La Follette’s Magazine

La Follette’s Seaman’s Act (1915)

Labor and Industrial Relations (overview)

Labor Legislation, State

Landis, Kenesaw Mountain

Lathrop, Julia Clifford

Lauck, William Jett

Lawrence Textile Strike (1912)

Lawson, Thomas W.

Lazarus, Emma

League of Nations

Lease, Mary Elizabeth

Legislative Reference Library

Leisure and Popular Culture (overview)

Lenin, Vladimir I.

Lenroot, Irvine L.

Lewis, Sinclair

Lewis, William Henry

Liberty Loans

Libraries, Public

Lincoln, Robert Todd

Lincoln County Wars

Lincoln-Roosevelt League

Lindberg, Charles A.

Lindsey, Benjamin Barr

Lippmann, Walter

Literature (overview)

Little Bighorn, Battle of the (1876)

Lloyd, Henry Demarest

Lochner v. New York (1905)

Lodge, Henry Cabot

Loewe v. Lawlor (1908)

London, Jack

London, Meyer

Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock (1903)

Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904)

Lovejoy, Owen R.

Low, Seth

Lowden, Frank Orren

Lowell, Abbott Lawrence

Lowell, James Russell

Ludlow Massacre (1914)

Lusk Committee


Macfadden, Bernarr

Macune, Charles W.

Magazines, Mass Circulation

Mahan, Alfred Thayer

Mail-Order Catalogs


Mann Act (1910)

Mann-Elkins Act (1910)

Markham, Edwin

Marshall, Thomas R.

Masses, The

Masters, Edgar Lee

Mayo, Charles H., and William J. Mayo

McAdoo, William Gibbs

McCarthy, Charles

McClatchy, C.K.

McClure, Samuel S.

McCormick, Cyrus Hall

McDowell, Mary Eliza

McGovern, Francis E.

McKelway, Alexander J.

McKinley, William

McReynolds, James Clark

Mead, George Herbert

Meat Inspection Act (1906)

Mellon, Andrew W.

Mental Hygiene

Michelson, Albert Abraham

Military Reform

Minnesota Rate Case

Mitchell, John

Mobile Pledge


Molly Maguires

Moody, Dwight L.

Morgan, John Pierpont

Moskowitz, Henry, and Belle Lindner


Most, Johann

Mothers’ Pensions Acts

Motion Pictures



Muir, John

Muller v. Oregon (1908)

Municipal Bath Movement

Municipal Housekeeping

Municipal Ownership of Utilities

Munsey, Frank

Murphy, Charles Francis

Murphy, Edgar Gardner

Museums and Historic Sites

Music (overview)

Nast, Thomas

National Afro-American League

National American Woman Suffrage Association

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

National Association of Manufacturers

National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage

National Board of Farm Organizations

National Catholic Welfare Council

National Child Labor Committee

National Citizens League

National Civic Federation

National Conference on Charities and Corrections

National Consumers League

National Education Association

National Housing Association

National Industrial Conference Board

National Labor Union

National Monetary Commission

National Municipal League

National Negro Business League

National Park Service, United States

National Progressive Republican League

National Security League

National Tax Association

National War Labor Board, United States

National Woman’s Party

National Women’s Trade Union League


Nearing, Scott

Neighborhood Idea


New Freedom

New Nationalism

New South

New York State Factory Investigating Commission

Newell, Frederick Haynes

Newlands, Francis G.

Newspapers, Mass Circulation

Nonpartisan League

Norris, Frank

Norris, George William

North American Civic League for Immigrants

Northern Securities Company v. United States (1904)

Norton, Charles Eliot

Ochs, Adolph S.

O’Hare, Kate Richards

O’Keeffe, Georgia

Olmsted, Frederick Law, Jr.

Olmsted, Frederick Law, Sr.

Olney, Richard

Open Door Policy

O’Reilly, Lenora

Oshkosh, Reginald

Ostrogorski, Moisei Yakovlevich

O’Sullivan, Mary Kenney

Ouimet, Francis

Ovington, Mary White

Page, Thomas Nelson

Page, Walter Hines

Page Act (1875)

Palmer, Alexander Mitchell

Panama Canal

Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915)

Pan-American Exposition (1901)

Panic of 1907

Park, Maud Wood

Parker, Alton Brooks

Parker, Quanah

Paterson Textile Strike (1913)

Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange)

Patten, Simon N.

Paul, Alice

Peace Movement

Peirce, Charles S.

Penal Reform

Penney, J.C.

Penrose, Boies


People’s Party (Populists)

Perkins, Frances

Perkins, George W.

Pershing, John Joseph

Phelan, James D.

Phillips, David Graham

Phillips, Ulrich B.

Pickford, Mary

Pinchot, Amos R.E.

Pinchot, Gifford

Pingree, Hazen S.

Pittsburgh Survey (1907)

Platt, Thomas Collier

Platt Amendment (1902)

Playground Association of America

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Plumb Plan (1919)

Plunkitt, George W.

Poe, Clarence

Poindexter, Miles

Police Reform

Political Machines

Politics (overview)

Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan and Trust Company (1895)


Pomerene, Atlee

Post, Louis Freeland

Postal Savings Banks

Pound, Roscoe

Powderly, Terence V.

Powell, John Wesley


Pratt, Richard Henry


Preservation Societies

Professional Associations

Progressive Party



Public Health Movement

Public Utility Regulation

Pujo Committee

Pulitzer, Joseph

Pullman, George M.

Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)

Quay, Matthew S.

Quintasket, Christine

Race Riots

Railroad Regulation, Federal

Randolph, A. Philip

Rankin, Jeannette

Rauschenbusch, Walter

Readjuster Movement



Reclamation Act (1902)

Record, George L.

Red Scare


Reed, James A.

Reed, John

Reed, Thomas Brackett

Reed, Walter


Religion (overview)

Remington, Frederic


Richards, Ellen Henrietta Swallow

Riis, Jacob August

Robber Barons

Robins, Raymond, and Margaret Dreier Robins

Robinson, Edwin Arlington

Robinson, James Harvey

Rockefeller, John D.

Roosevelt, Franklin D.

Roosevelt, Theodore

Roosevelt Corollary

Root, Elihu

Rosenwald, Julius

Ross, Edward A.

Royce, Josiah

Rural Free Delivery

Rural Post Road Act (1916)

Russell, Charles Edward

Russell, Lillian

Ruth, George Herman “Babe”

Ryan, John A.

Sabath, Adolph Joseph


Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Salvation Army

San Francisco Earthquake (1906)

Sanger, Margaret

Santayana, George

Sargent, John Singer

Schneiderman, Rose

Schofield, John M.

School and Society

Schurz, Carl

Schwab, Charles M.

Scientific Management

Scudder, (Julia) Vida Dutton

Sears, Roebuck and Company

Seattle General Strike (1919)

Sedition Act (1918)


Selective Service

Seligman, Edwin R.A.

Sewall, May Wright

Seymour, William Joseph


Shaw, Albert

Shaw, Anna Howard

Sheldon, Charles M.

Sheppard-Towner Act (1921)

Sherman, John

Sherman, William T.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)

Shipping Act of 1916

Short Ballot

Sierra Club

Simkhovitch, Mary Melinda Kingsbury

Simons, Algie Martin, and May Wood Simons

Sinclair, Upton

Singer, Isaac Merritt

Single-Tax Movement

Sitting Bull

Sloan, John

Small, Albion W.

Smith, Alfred Emanuel

Smith, Hoke

Smith, J. Allen

Smith-Hughes Act (1917)

Smith-Lever Act (1914)

Smoot, Reed

Social Engineering

Social Gospel

Social Hygiene

Social Insurance

Social Settlements


Socialist Labor Party

Socialist Party of America

Sociological Jurisprudence

Southern Sociological Congress

Spalding, Albert G.

Spanish-American War

Spargo, John

Spencer, Herbert

Spillman, William Jasper

Square Deal

Standard Oil

Standing Bear, Luther

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady

Starr, Ellen Gates

Stead, William T.


Steel Strike of 1919

Steffens, (Joseph) Lincoln

Steichen, Edward

Stieglitz, Alfred

Stimson, Henry Louis

Stokes, James Graham Phelps, and Rose Pastor Stokes

Straight, Willard D.

Straus, Oscar S.

Street Railways

Strong, Josiah

Sullivan, John L.

Sullivan, Louis H.

Sullivan, Mark

Sulzer, William

Sumner, William Graham

Sunday, Billy

Supreme Court, U.S.

Survey, The


Swift, Gustavus Franklin

Swift and Company v. United States (1905)

Taft, William Howard

Taggart, Thomas

Tammany Hall

Tarbell, Ida Minerva

Tariff Reform

Tax Reform, State

Taylor, Frederick W.

Technology and Systematization (overview)



Teller Amendment (1898)

Terman, Lewis M.

Terrell, Mary Church

Thomas, William Hannibal

Thorndike, Edward Lee

Thorpe, Jim “Bright Path”

Tiffany, Louis Comfort

Tillman, Benjamin R.

Tin Pan Alley


Track and Field


Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (1898)

Transportation Act (1920)

Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)

Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire (1911)

Trotter, William Monroe

Tumulty, Joseph P.

Turner, Frederick Jackson

Turner, Henry McNeal

Tuskegee Institute

Twain, Mark

Tweed, William “Boss”

Underwood, Oscar Wilder

Uneeda Biscuit Company


Union Labor Party

Unions, Trade and Labor

United Fruit Company

United Mine Workers of America

United States v. American Tobacco Company (1911)

United States v. United States Steel Corporation (1920)

Urban League

Urbanization (overview)

U’Ren, William S.

Van Hise, Charles R.

Vanderbilt, Cornelius

Vardaman, James K.


Veblen, Thorstein B.

Veiller, Lawrence Turnure

Villard, Oswald Garrison

Wages and Hours Legislation

Wagner, John Peter “Honus”

Wagner, Robert F.

Walker, Francis A.

Walker, Madam C. J.

Walker, Moses Fleetwood

Wallace, Henry Cantwell

Walsh, David Ignatius

Walsh, Francis P.

Wanamaker, John

War Industries Board, United States

Ward, Lester Frank

Warehouse Act (1916)

Warner, Charles Dudley

Washington, Booker T.

Watson, Thomas Edward

Weaver, James Baird

Webb-Kenyon Act (1913)

Webb-Pomerene Act (1918)

Weber, Adna Ferrin

Wells, David A.

Wells-Barnett, Ida Bell

Westinghouse, George

Weyerhauser, Frederick

Weyl, Walter Edward

Wharton, Edith

Wheeler, Burton K.

Whistler, James McNeill

White, Caroline Earle

White, Edward Douglass

White, Sue Shelton

White, William Allen

Whitlock, Brand

Whitman, Walt

Wiley, Harvey W.

Willard, Frances Elizabeth Caroline

Wilson v. New (1917)

Wilson, William Bauchop

Wilson, Woodrow

Wise, Stephen S.

Wister, Owen

Woman Suffrage

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union

Woman’s Peace Party

Women and Gender (overview)

Women’s Protective Legislation

Wood, Leonard

Woodcraft Indians

Woods, Robert Archey

Woodson, Carter G.

Working Girls’ Clubs

Workmen’s Compensation

World War I

Wounded Knee (1890)

Wright, Carroll Davidson

Wright, Frank Lloyd

Wright, Orville, and Wilbur Wright

Yellow Journalism

Yellow-Dog Contract

Yerkes, Charles Tyson

Young Men’s Christian Association

Young, Denton True “Cy”

Ziegfeld, Florenz, Jr.


Primary Documents

Treaties and Foreign Policy Declarations

Invitation to Pan-American Conference (1881)

The Independence of Cuba (1898)

Annexation of Hawaii (1898)

William McKinley’s Message on the Philippines (1898)

Treaty of Peace with Spain (1898)

Senator Beveridge Advocates Imperialism (1899)

Open Door Policy (1899)

Platt Amendment (1902)

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904)

President Roosevelt’s Letter to Senator Henry Cabot Lodge on Japan (1905)

Root-Takahira Agreement (1908)

Gentlemen’s Agreement on Japanese Immigration (1908)

Report of the United States Commission on Immigration (1911)

President Taft Proclaims “Dollar Diplomacy” (1912)

President Wilson’s Mobile Pledge (1913)

President Wilson’s Special Message on Mexican Relations (1913)

President Wilson’s Panama Canal Tolls Message (1914)

President Wilson’s Appeal for Neutrality (1914)

Secretary of State Bryan’s Note on the Sinking of the Lusitania (1915)

American Occupation of Haiti (1916)

The Sussex Pledge (1916)

Zimmermann Note (1917)

President Wilson’s Peace Without Victory Speech (1917)

President Wilson Asks for Declaration of War (1917)

Senator Norris Opposes American Intervention in World War I (1917)

Lansing-Ishii Agreement (1917)

President Wilson’s Fourteen Points (1918)

Archangel Expedition Aide-Memoire (1918)

President Wilson Advocates the League of Nations (1919)

Senator Lodge Opposes the League of Nations (1919)

Political Statements

Speech of Senator Blanche K. Bruce to the U.S. Senate (1876)

President Chester A. Arthur’s Proclamation on Civil Service (1883)

William Jennings Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech (1896)

President Theodore Roosevelt Advocates the Conservation of Natural Resources (1907)

Appeal of Seven Governors to Theodore Roosevelt (1912)

Roosevelt’s Response to Seven Governors (1912)

Theodore Roosevelt Proclaims the “New Nationalism” (1912)

Pujo Committee Report: Concentration of Control in Banking and Credit (1912)

First Inaugural Address of President Wilson (1913)

United States Commission on Industrial Relations: Concentration of Control in Industry (1915)

President Wilson’s Appeal to the Voters to Return a Democratic Congress (1918)

Warren G. Harding Proposes a Return to “Normalcy” (1920)

Political Party Platforms

Greenback Party (1884)

Anti-Monopoly Party (1884)

Prohibition Party (1884)

Union Labor Party (1888)

Socialist Labor Party (1892)

People’s Party Platform (1892)

Republican Party of Wisconsin Platform (1912)

Socialist Party Platform (1912)

Progressive Party Platform (1912)

Acts of Congress and Constitutional Amendments

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)

Interstate Commerce Act (1887)

Dawes Severalty Act (1887)

Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)

United States Constitution, Article XIV (1913)

United States Constitution, Article XVII (1913)

Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)

Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)

Adamson Eight-Hour Act (1916)

Immigration Literacy Act (1917)

Espionage Act (1917)

Sedition Act (1918)

Railway Administration Act (1918)

Child Labor Act (1919)

Volstead Act (1919)

United States Constitution, Article XVIII (1919)

United States Constitution, Article XIX (1920)

Court Decisions

Munn v. Illinois (1877)

Civil Rights Cases (1883)

Ex parte Yarbrough (1884)

In re Jacobs (1885)

Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan and Trust Company (1895)

United States v. E.C. Knight Company (1895)

In re Debs (1895)

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Northern Securities Company v. United States (1904)

Lochner v. New York (1905)

Adair v. United States (1908)

Muller v. Oregon (1908)

Standard Oil Company of New Jersey v. United States (1911)

Bunting v. Oregon (1917)

Wilson v. New (1917)

Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918)

Schenck v. United States (1919)

Abrams v. United States (1919)

Declarations and Principles of Organizations

Knights of Labor Platform (1878)

Eight-Hour Association Declaration of Principles (1886)

American Federation of Labor (1887)

American Economic Association Platform (1887)

Farmers’ Alliance Ocala Demands (1890)

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union “Do Everything” Policy (1893)

Anti-Imperialist League Platform (1899)

National Association of Manufacturers Declaration of Principles (1903)

National Association of Colored Women (1904)

National American Woman Suffrage Association Declaration of Principles (1904)

Niagara Movement Declaration of Principles (1905)

Industrial Workers of the World Manifesto (1905)

National Progressive Republican League Declaration of Principles (1911)

International Congress of Women Manifesto (1915)

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